hometown, museum, history, countryside, work or study, snacks, teacher, reading books, color, hurry time, house or apartment, stay up late, music concert, handwriting, subject, teamwork, travel, swimming, keep healthy, vegetables and fruits, shoes,
Part 2：重要谈话; Part 3：国际谈话 翻译 儿童(大人)不和陌生人讲话 为什么
Part 2 有一个玩具，谁给的，为什么会喜欢，多久玩一次;Part 3 玩具相关问题，现在孩子的玩具和以前有什么区别，现在孩子们喜欢搜集东西吗，公司怎么做才能让孩子们搜集他们的产品
Part 2 你借过的东西; Part 3 什么东西人们会经常借，一般借东西有时间限制吗，人们讨论借东西为什么
Part 2:一个你买的东西; Part 3:哪些购物方式 哪些人会花时间购物
Part 2 a perfect job; Part 3 perfect job相关问题，孩子想做的工作，工作的动力，认为钱更重要还是快乐更重要
Part 2：Desicribe a house or apartment you would like to live in.; Part 3：关于房子的各种……你的国家公寓多还是house多?大家会租房吗?年轻人和老年人偏爱的住所一样吗?如果一个年轻人挣很多钱但是没攒钱，他的父母应该帮他买房子吗?
Part 2 有趣的书; Part 3 人们为什么喜欢读小说 小说和改编的电影哪个更有趣 人们为什么喜欢侦探小说 侦探节目和小说哪个更好看
Part 2 an important festival in China ;Part 3 National festival important? Why?How people celebrate ?How do u celebrate With family or friends? Why?When u have to be with family? What other festival is also important?
Part 2 an article of healthy; Part 3大致是人们为了健康做什么，现在人是否健康为什么，和以前的人相比是否健康为什么有些记不清了
Part 2 an important conversation; Part 3.人们一般都聊什么;什么情况下陌生人会互相说话;男人女人聊天内容有啥不同;男人女人有啥共同话题
Part 2学校的艺术活动; Part 3. 关于传统文艺工艺，会不会消失，喜不喜欢，怎么学之类的
Part 2 儿时的开心的事情; Part 3关于回忆，怎么回忆呢，为什么想要回忆，有什么不同
Part 2 你在电视上看过的一个有趣的故事；Part 3，关于电视和教育的
Part 2 what occasion somebody or sth makes noise; Part 3 suggestion about city noise
Part 2 Describe an activity that local people are intersted in，Part 3问了邻里关系，手机是不是关系疏远的原因
Part 2 你相见的新闻中的人 Part 3 关于新闻真实性的问题
Part 2 一次长途汽车旅行; Part 3经常汽车旅行吗?中国人为什么喜欢买车?多少人会买车?买车多了好吗?什么人会买车?人们买什么样的车?
Part2 describe a person older than you that you admired; Part 3围绕老年人问问题，老年人通常做什么户外运动， 老年人觉得现在生活好还是以前， 老年人喜欢在电影院还是家里看电影?为什么?
Describe a book you have read
You should say
what the book was
when you read it
what feeling you had while reading it
and explain how it influenced you.
Well, I would choose a motivating book called Who Moved My Cheese, which I read several times when I was a sophomore. It is a story about the change that takes place in a maze where four amusing characters look for cheese. Here cheese is a metaphor for what we want to have in life, whether it is a job, a relationship, money, a big house, or even an activity like golf. Each of us has our own idea of what cheese is and the maze stands for where we spend time looking for what we want. The four characters react differently when they find change happened in the maze.The profound book tells us that every day we have to face change in work or in life. What is more important is to learn how to anticipate change, adapt to change quickly, enjoy change and ready to change quickly again and again. Discover the secret for yourself and learn how to deal with the change so that we can suffer less stress and enjoy more successes in life. It is very simple in language, however, every time I read it, I find something new and useful in it.
题目：Living with uncertainty
题型：T/F/NG 6 表格填空 8
题目：Aqua product: New Zealand’s Algae Biodiesel
题型：段落信息匹配 5 Summary 5 多选 3
A The world’s first wild algae biodiesel, produced in New Zealand by Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation, was successfully test driven in Wellington by the Minister for Energy and Climate Change Issues, David Parker. In front of a crowd of invited guests, media and members of the public, the Minister filled up a diesel-powered Land Rover with Aquaflow B5 blend bio-diesel and then drove the car around the forecourt of Parliament Buildings in Central Wellington. Green Party coleader, Jeanette Fitzsimons was also on board. Marlborough-based Aquaflow announced in May 2006 that it had produced the world’s first bio-diesel derived from wild microalgae sourced from local sewage ponds.
B "We believe we are the first company in the world to test drive a car powered by wild algae-based biodiesel. This will come as a surprise to some international bio-diesel industry people who believe that this break-through is still years away, " explains Aquaflow spokesperson Barrie Leay. "A bunch of inventive Kiwis, and an Aussie, have developed this fuel in just over a year ", he comments. "This is a huge opportunity for New Zealand and a great credit to the team of people who saw the potential in this technology from day one."
C Bio-diesel based on algae could eventually become a sustainable, low cost, cleaner burning fuel alternative for New Zealand, powering family cars, trucks, buses and boats. It can also be used for other purposes such as heating or distributed electricity generation. There is now a global demand for billions of litres of biodiesel per year. Algae are also readily available and produced in huge volumes in nutrient rich waste streams such as at the settling ponds of Effluent Management Systems (EMS). It is a renewable indigenous resource ideally suited to the production of fuel and other useful by-products. The breakthrough comes after technology start-up, Aquaflow, agreed to undertake a pilot with Marlborough District Council late last year to extract algae from the settling ponds of its EMS based in Blenheim. By removing the main contaminant to use as a fuel feedstock, Aquaflow is also helping clean up the council’s water discharge - a process known as bio-remediation. Dairy farmers, and many food processors too, can benefit in similar ways by applying the harvesting technology to their nutrientrich waste streams.
D Blended with conventional mineral diesel, bio-diesel can run vehicles without the need for vehicle modifications. Fuel derived from algae can also help meet the Government B5 (5% blended)target, with the prospect of this increasing over time as bio-fuel production increases. "Our next step is to increase capacity to produce one million litres of bio-diesel from the Marlborough sewerage ponds over the next year, " says Leay. Aquaflow will launch a prospectus pre-Christmas as the company has already attracted considerable interest from potential investors. The test drive bio-diesel was used successfully in a static engine test at Massey University’s Wellington campus on Monday, December 11.
E Today Algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as fertilizers, soil conditioners and livestock feed. Aquatic and microscopic species are cultured in clear tanks or ponds and are either harvested or used to treat effluents pumped through the ponds. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places. Naturally growing seaweeds are an important source of food, especially in Asia. They provide many vitamins including: A, B,B2, B6,niacin and C, and are rich in iodine, potassium, iron, magnesium and calcium. In addition commercially cultivated microalgae, including both Algae and Cyan-bacteria, are marketed as nutritional supplements, such as Spirulina, Chlorella and the Vitamin-C supplement, Dunaliella, high in beta-carotene. Algae are national foods of many nations: China consumes more than 70 species, including fat choy, a cyano-bacterium considered a vegetable; Japan, over 20 species. The natural pigments produced by algae can be used as an alternative to chemical dyes and coloring agents.
F Algae are the simplest plant organisms that convert sunlight and carbon dioxide in the air around us into stored energy through the well understood process of photosynthesis. Algae are rich in lipids and other combustible elements and Aquaflow is developing technology that will allow these elements to be extracted in a cost effective way. The proposed process is the subject of a provisional patent. Although algae are good at taking most of the nutrients out of sewage, too much algae can taint the water and make it smell. So, councils have to find a way of cleaning up the excess algae in their sewerage outflows and then either dispose of it or find alternative uses for it. And that’s where Aquaflow comes in.
G Unlike some bio-fuels which require crops to be specially grown and thereby compete for land use with food production, and use other scarce resources of fuel, chemicals and fertiliser, the source for algae-based biodiesel already exists extensively and the process produces a sustainable net energy gain by capturing free solar energy from the sun.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15- 27 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Questions 15 -19
Reading Passage 2 contains 7 paragraphs A -G.
Which paragraphs stale the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A - G in boxes 15-19 on your answer sheet.
You may use any letter more than once
15 It is unnecessary to modify vehicles driven by bio-diesel.
16 Some algae are considered edible plants.
17 Algae could be part of a sustainable and recycled source.
18 Algae bio-diesel is superior to other bio-fuels in lot a ways.
19 overgrown algea also can be a potential threat to environment
Questions 20- 24
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using na mare than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 20-24 on your answer sheet.
Bio-diesel based on algae could become a substitute for 20_____ in New Zealand. It could be used to 21______ vehicles such as cars and boats. As a result, billions of litres of bio-diesel are required world wide each year. Algae can be obtained from 22______ with nutrient materials. With the technology breakthrough, algae are extracted and the 23_____ is removed from the settling ponds. Dairy farmers, and many food processors can adopt such 24______ technology.
Question 25 -27
Choose words from the passage to answer the questions 3940. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
25 What environmental standard would bio-diesel vehicles are to meet?
26 What is to do as the immediate plan for coming years for Aquaflow?
27 Through what kind of process do algae obtain and store energy?
答案： 15 D 16 E 17 C 18 G 19 F
20 fuel 21 power 22 water streams 23 contaminate 24 harvesting 25 photosynthesis 26 Government B5 27 producing/production capacity
题目：We have Star performers!
题型：段落信息匹配 4 YES/NO/NO GIVEN 4 Summary 5
A The difference between companies is people. With capital and technology in plentiful supply, the critical resource for companies in the knowledge era will be human talent. Companies full of achievers will, by definition, outperform organisations of plodders. Ergo, compete ferociously for the best people. Poach and pamper stars; ruthlessly weed out second-raters. This in essence has been the recruitment strategy of the ambitious company of the past decade. The ‘talent mindset’ was given definitive form in two reports by the consultancy McKinsey famously entitled The War for Talent. Although the intensity of the warfare subsequently subsided along with the air in the internet bubble, it has been warming up again as the economy tightens: labour shortages, for example, are the reason the government has laid out the welcome mat for immigrants from the new Europe.
B Yet while the diagnosis - people are important - is evident to the point of platitude, the apparently logical prescription - hire the best - like so much in management is not only not obvious: it is in fact profoundly wrong. The first suspicions dawned with the crash to earth of the dotcom meteors, which showed that dumb is dumb whatever the IQ of those who perpetrate it. The point was illuminated in brilliant relief by Enron, whose leaders, as a New Yorker article called ‘The Talent Myth’ entertainingly related, were so convinced of their own cleverness that they never twigged that collective intelligence is not the sum of a lot of individual intelligences. In fact in a profound sense the two are opposites. Enron believed in stars, noted author Malcolm Gladwell, because they didn’t believe in systems. But companies don’t just create: ‘they execute and compete and co-ordinate the efforts of many people, and the organisations that are most successful at that task are the ones where the system is the star’. The truth is that you can’t win the talent wars by hiring stars - only lose it. New light on why this should be so is thrown by an analysis of star behaviour in this month’s Harvard Business Review. In a study of the careers of 1, 000 star-stock analysts in the 1990s, the researchers found that when a company recruited a star performer, three things happened.
C First, stardom doesn’t easily transfer from one organisation to another. In many cases, performance dropped sharply when high performers switched employers and in some instances never recovered. More of success than commonly supposed is due to the working environment - systems, processes, leadership, accumulated embedded learning that are absent in and can’t be transported to the new firm. Moreover, precisely because of their past stellar performance, stars were unwilling to learn new tricks and antagonised those (on whom they now unwittingly depended) who could teach them. So they moved, upping their salary as they did - 36 per cent moved on within three years, fast even for Wall Street. Second, group performance suffered as a result of tensions and resentment by rivals within the team. One respondent likened hiring a star to an organ transplant. The new organ can damage others by hogging the blood supply, other organs can start aching or threaten to stop working or the body can reject the transplant altogether, he said. ‘You should think about it very carefully before you do a transplant to a healthy body. ‘ Third, investors punished the offender by selling its stock. This is ironic, since the motive for importing stars was often a suffering share price in the first place. Shareholders evidently believe that the company is overpaying, the hiree is cashing in on a glorious past rather than preparing for a glowing present, and a spending spree is in the offing.
D The result of mass star hirings as well as individual ones seem to confirm such doubts. Look at County NatWest and Barclays de Zoete Wedd, both of which hired teams of stars with loud fanfare to do great things in investment banking in the 1990s. Both failed dismally. Everyone accepts the cliche that people make the organisation - but much more does the organisation make the people. When researchers studied the performance of fund managers in the 1990s, they discovered that just 30 per cent of variation in fund performance was due to the individual, compared to 70 per cent to the company-specific setting.
E That will be no surprise to those familiar with systems thinking. W Edwards Deming used to say that there was no point in beating up on people when 90 per cent of performance variation was down to the system within which they worked. Consistent improvement, he said, is a matter not of raising the level of individual intelligence, but of the learning of the organisation as a whole. The star system is glamorous - for the few. But it rarely benefits the company that thinks it is working it. And the knock-on consequences indirectly affect everyone else too. As one internet response to Gladwelrs New Yorker article put it: after Enron, ‘the rest of corporate America is stuck with overpaid, arrogant, underachieving, and relatively useless talent. ’
F Football is another illustration of the stars vs systems strategic choice. As with investment banks and stockbrokers, it seems obvious that success should ultimately be down to money. Great players are scarce and expensive. So the club that can afford more of them than anyone else will win. But the performance of Arsenal and Manchester United on one hand and Chelsea and Real Madrid on the other proves that it’s not as easy as that. While Chelsea and Real have the funds to be compulsive star collectors - as with Juan Sebastian Veron - they are less successful than Arsenal and United which, like Liverpool before them, have put much more emphasis on developing a setting within which stars-in-the-making can flourish. Significantly, Thierry Henry, Patrick Veira and Robert Pires are much bigger stars than when Arsenal bought them, their value (in all senses) enhanced by the Arsenal system. At Chelsea, by contrast, the only context is the stars themselves - managers with different outlooks come and go every couple of seasons. There is no settled system for the stars to blend into. The Chelsea context has not only not added value, it has subtracted it. The side is less than the sum of its exorbitantly expensive parts. Even Real Madrid’s galacticos, the most extravagantly gifted on the planet, are being outperformed by less talented but better-integrated Spanish sides. In football, too, stars are trumped by systems.
G So if not by hiring stars, how do you compete in the war for talent? You grow your own. This worked for investment analysts, where some companies were not only better at creating stars but also at retaining them. Because they had a much more sophisticated view of the interdependent relationship between star and system, they kept them longer without resorting to the exorbitant salaries that were so destructive to rivals.
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-G, in boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet.
28 One example from non-commerce/business settings that better system wins bigger stars
29 One failed company that believes stars rather than system
30 One suggestion that author made to acquire employees then to win the competition nowadays
31 One metaphor to human medical anatomy that illustrates the problems of hiring stars.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
32 McKinsey who wrote The War for Talent had not expected the huge influence made by this book.
33 Economic condition becomes one of the factors which decide whether or not a country would prefer to hire foreign
34 The collapse of Enron is caused totally by a unfortunate incident instead of company’s management mistake.
35 Football clubs that focus making stars in the setting are better than simply collecting stars.
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the
Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
An investigation carried out on 1000 36 participants of a survey by Harvard Business Review found a company
hire a 37 has negative effects. For instance, they behave considerably worse in a new team than in the 38 that they used to be. They move faster than wall street and increase their 39 Secondly, they faced rejections or refuse from those 40 within the team. Lastly, the one who made mistakes had been punished by selling his/her stock share.
28 F 29 B 30 G 31 C 32 No Given 33 YES 34 NO 35 YES
36 analysts/star-stock analysts 37 performance star/ star/ star performer 38 working environment/ settings 39 salary 40 rivals
Effects of noise (C7T4P3)
The little ice age (C8T2P2)
Information theory (C9T3P3)
Land of the rising sun (C8T4P1)
Striking back at lightning with lasers (C8T3P1)
Flawed beauty: the problem with toughened glass (C5T4P3)
Market Integrated Rural Transport Project (C7T2P3)
Air Traffic Control in the USA (C8T1P2)
Is there anybody out there: the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence? (C9T1P2)
Sheet glass manufacture: the float process (C8T2P1)
Micro-Enterprise Credit for Street Youth (C4T3P1)
The impact of Wilderness Tourism (C5T4P1)
Graying populations stays in the pink (C6T2P2)
Motivating employees under Adverse Conditions (C6T3P2)
Do literate women make better mothers (C6T4P2)
What do whales feel (C4T1P2)
Let’s go bats! (C7T1P1)
The history of tortoise (C9T1P3)
Ant intelligence (C7T3P1)
Young children’s sense of identity (C9T4P2)
Educating phsyche (C7T1P3)
Hearing impairment (C9T2P1)
A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently (C9T2P3)
Obtaining linguistic Data (C4T3P3)
Johnson's Dictionary (C5T1P1)
Attitudes to language (C9T3P1)
The number of people taking part in a wildlife survey in Britain between 2001 and 2009.
A news reported that a 14-year-old boy who had seriously damaged school was made to clean the streets as a punishment instead of being sent to jail. Do you think young criminals should be sent to prison as a punishment? Or should alternative forms of punishment be used? Give your own opinions and illustrate it with detailed examples from your knowledge or personal experience. Write no less than 250 words.
In many parts of the world children and teenagers are committing more crimes. Why is this case happening? How should children or teenagers be punished?
Young people who commit serious crimes, such as robbery or violent attacks should be punished in the same way as adults. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In many parts of the world children and teenagers are committing more crimes. Why do you think it is the case? How should children or teenagers be punished?
An increasing number of young adults are committing crimes. Thus, some people contend that young criminals should be sentenced to prison while others hold the belief that other feasible punishments could be recommended. Personally, I am in favor of the latter.
Others think that there are more effective solutions to juvenile delinquency, such as education and community service. A significant proportion of teenagers commit a crime are partly because of their ignorance in the knowledge of laws and regulations, having no idea of the responsibility they will assume if they do such illegal things. Then, giving them education would strengthen their concept and ideas about laws to a large extent in case they would commit again in their adulthood. In addition, compulsory service in community could be taken into account as well. In the process of making contributions to community, they would recognize their own value and be aware of their responsibilities. As a result, they would be guilty of their criminal behaviors gradually.
Imprisonment,however,should not be overlooked as a method of punishment. The reason why some people harbor the idea that young offenders should be put into jail primarily lies in the deterrent effect of penalty punishment. Provided that young criminals would not be sentenced into prison, some teenager would hold lightly the belief towards the consequences of criminality. In the case, juvenile delinquency would become a common phenomenon, which may be fatal in the consequence. But once they are free from jail, they are hardly received by their original school and even their criminal circumstances would be recorded in their archives which adversely affect their later lives. Consequently, it is likely to breed their revenge mind towards society.
In conclusion, compared with criminal penalty, the two methods mentioned above would play a vital part in solving teenager’s criminality fundamentally.